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COVID-19 Laboratory Studies

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Evidence from whole genome sequencing of aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 almost 5 hours after hospital turnover . Charness ME, Gupta K, Linsenmeyer K, Strymish J, Madjarov R, Stack G. Airborne SARS-CoV-2 virus may transmit infection for over four hours, even in a hospital setting. Am J Infect Control. 2024 Jul;52(7):849-851.

Intranasal neomycin evokes broad-spectrum antiviral immunity in the upper respiratory tract . Mao T, Kim J, Peña-Hernández MA, Valle G, Moriyama M, Luyten S, Ott IM et al. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of neomycin provided significant protection against upper respiratory infection in a model of COVID-19. In healthy humans, intranasal application of neomycin-containing Neosporin ointment induced an effective gene response that could protect from COVID-19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Apr 30;121(18):e2319566121.

Evidence from whole genome sequencing of aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 almost five hours after hospital room turnover . Charness ME, Gupta K, Linsenmeyer K, Strymish J, Madjarov R, Stack G. Airborne SARS-CoV-2 may transmit infection for over four hours, even in a hospital setting. Am J Infect Control. 2024 Apr 5. Online ahead of print.

Blood markers show neural consequences of long COVID-19 . Tang N, Kido T, Shi J, McCafferty E, Ford JM, Dal Bon K. This study shows chronic peripheral inflammation with increased stress after COVID-19 infection. Additionally, differentially expressed neurodegenerative proteins were identified in people recovering from COVID-19 regardless of persistent symptoms. Cell. 2024 Mar 8;13(6):478.

Viral and host factors are associated with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 . Aggarwal NR, Nordwall J, Braun DL, Chung L, Coslet J, Der T, Eriobu N et al. Researchers identified virus-specific, clinical, and biological variables strongly associated with COVID-19 mortality risk within 90 days, revealing potential pathogen and host-response therapeutic targets for acute COVID-19 disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2024 Feb 20. Online ahead of print.

Recombinant rod domain of vimentin reduces SARS-CoV-2 viral replication by blocking spike protein-ACE2 interactions . Lam FW, Brown CA, Ronca SA. Researchers created a form of the protein vimentin that decreases the viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 and has potential as a COVID-19 treatment. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Feb 20;25(5):2477.

Genetic analysis of obstructive sleep apnea and its relationship with severe COVID-19 . Strausz S, Agafonova E, Tiullinen V, Kiiskinen T Broberg M, Ruotsalainen SE, Koskela J et al. Analysis identified novel genetic risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea and showed apnea is a causal risk factor for severe COVID-19. The effect is predominantly explained by higher BMI. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2024 Feb 8. Online ahead of print.

Blocking the doublecortin-like kinase 1-regulated SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle restores cell signaling network . Undi RB, Ahsan N, Larabee JL, Darlene-Reuter N, Papin J, Dogra S, Hannafon BN et al. Pharmacological inhibition of the DCLK1 kinase enzyme during COVID-19 infection effectively impedes virus processes, showing potential as a new COVID-19 treatment. J Virol. 2023 Nov 30;97(e0119423.

Type I interferon signaling induces a delayed antiproliferation response in respiratory epithelial cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection . Cunha JB, Leix K, Sherman EJ, Mirabelli C, Frum T, Zhang CJ, Kennedy AA et al. Type I interferon signaling appears to worsen COVID-19 lung infection by blocking the regeneration of alveolar epithelial cells. Journal of Virology. 2023 Nov 17. Online ahead of print.

Chronic alcohol use primes bronchial cells for altered inflammatory response and barrier dysfunction during SARS-CoV-2 infection . Easley KF, Edenfield RC, Lott MEJ, Reed RC, Sarma JD, Mehta AJ et al. Alcohol use disorder is a significant risk factor for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2023 Nov 1;325(5):L647-L661.

Blocking of doblecortin-line kinase 1-regulated SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle restores cell signaling network . Undi RB, Ahsan N, Larabee JL, Darlene-Reuter N, Papin J,Dogra S, Hannafon BN et al. Pharmacological inhibition of DCLK1 kinase during SARS-CoV-2 infection holds significant potential for immediate application in treating COVID-19. J Virol. 2023 Oct 20. Online ahead of print.

Blocking of doblecortin-line kinase 1-regulated SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle restores cell signaling network . Undi RB, Ahsan N, Larabee JL, Darlene-Reuter N, Papin J,Dogra S, Hannafon BN et al. Pharmacological inhibition of DCLK1 kinase during SARS-CoV-2 infection holds significant potential for immediate application in treating COVID-19. J Virol. 2023 Oct 20. Online ahead of print.

Single-nuclei characterization of pervasive transcriptional signatures across organs in response to COVID-19 . COVID Tissue Atlas Consortium; et al. Researchers identified how COVID-19 alters RNA transcription in multiple different organs, highlighting potential targets for therapies and drug development. Elife. 2023 Oct 13:12:e91090.

Single-nuclei characterization of pervasive transcriptional signatures across organs in response to COVID-19 . COVID Tissue Atlas Consortium; et al. Researchers identified how COVID-19 alters RNA transcription in multiple different organs, highlighting potential targets for therapies and drug development. Elife. 2023 Oct 13:12:e91090.

Hypercapnia increases ACE2 expression and pseudo-SARS-CoV-2 entry in bronchial epithelial cells by augmenting cellular cholesterol . Chen F, Matsuda A, Budinger GRS, Sporn PHS, Casalino-Matsuda SM. Findings reveal a mechanism that may account, in part, for poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with advanced lung disease and hypercapnia and in those who smoke cigarettes. They also suggest cholesterol-lowering therapies may be of particular benefit in patients with hypercapnia when exposed to or infected with SARS-CoV-2. Front Immunol. 2023 Oct 12:14:1251120.

Comparison of virus aerosol concentrations across a face shield worn on a healthcare personnel during a simulated patient cough. Pratt AA, Brown GD, Perencevich EN, Diekema DJ, Nonnenmann MW. Face shields reduce virus and particle concentrations. However viable viruses were still measured on the inside of a face shield in the breathing zone of the health care worker during simulated coughing. Other exposure control methods need to be used to prevent transmission from virus aerosol. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2023 Aug 23;1-6.

Oxylipin concentration shift in exhaled breath condensation (EBC) of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients . Borras E, McCartney MM, Rojas DE, Hicks TL, Tran NK, Tham T, Juarez MM et al. Monitoring exhaled breath concentrations of oxylipin and other compounds presents an interesting opportunity to monitor key indicators of COVID-19 disease progression and severity. J Breath Res. 2023 Aug 7;17(4).

NK cells from COVID-19 positive patients exhibit enhanced cytotoxic activity upon NKG2A and KIR2DL1 blockade. Lee G, Schauner R, Burke J, Borocz J, Vasana S, Sobieraj L, Giraudo M et al. This study reveals new insights into Natural Killer cell phenotypes during SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggests a therapeutic approach worthy of further investigation to enhance NK cell-mediated responses against the virus. Front Immunol. 2023 Jul 7;14:1022890.

Vascular and non-HLA autoantibody profiles in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Lichtenstein B, Zheng Y, Gjertson D, Ferbas KG, Rimoin AW, Yang OO, Aldrovandi GM et al. Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 demonstrate evidence of auto-reactive antibodies targeting endothelial cells, angiotensin II receptors, and numerous structural proteins including collagens. Front Immunol. 2023 Jun 15;14:1197326.

Honokiol inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture at a post-entry step . Salago-Benvindo C, Leijs AA, Thaler M, Tas A, Arbiser JL, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ. Honokiol, a molecule from the magnolia tree, inhibits replication of the virus that causes COVID-19. Microbiol Spectr. 2023 May 22. Online ahead of print.

Inflammatory and mental health sequelae of COVID-19 . Loftis JM, Firsick E, Shirley K, Adkins JL, Le-Cook A, Sano E, Hudson R, Moorman J. People with COVID-19 tested worse on a measure of anxiety and depression compared with uninfected people. Changes in neuropsychiatric symptom severity were accompanied by alterations in immune factors and higher biomarkers of inflammation. Compr Psychoneuroendocrinol. 2023 May 18. Online ahead of print.

Maternal transfer of IgA and IgG SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies transplacentally and via breast milk feeding. Sajadi MM, Shokatpour N, Purcell M, Tehrani ZR, Lankford A, Bathula A, Campbell JD et al. Vaccination of mothers after childbirth followed by breastfeeding appears to be the best way to provide SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to infants. PLoS One. 2023 Apr 6;18(4):e0284020.

Synergistic detrimental effects of cigarette smoke, alcohol, and SARS-CoV-2 in COPD bronchial epithelial cells. Muralidharan A, Bauer CD, Katafiasz DM, Strah HM, Siddique A, Reid SP, Bailey KL, Wyatt TA. With pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, short exposure to alcohol or cigarette smoke is sufficient to exacerbate COVID-19 infection and associated injury, impairing lung defenses. Pathogens. 2023 Mar 22;12(3):498.

Serum neutralizing antibody titers 12 months after coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccination: Correlation to clinical variables in an adult, US population. Zhao M, Slotkin R, Sheth AH, Pischel L, Kyriakides TC, Emu B, McNamara C et al. Multiple clinical factors affect the strength and duration of primary series vaccination, but not post-booster dose strength. Malignancy was associated with lower booster-dose response regardless of prior COVID-19 infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Feb 8;76(3):e391-e399.

Association between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and patient symptoms and clinical outcomes using droplet digital PCR. Hastie E, Amogan H, Looney D, Mehta SR. Viral load in the upper throat was not a strong predictor of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in the pre-Delta and Delta phases of the pandemic but was predictive of symptomatic diseases and in-hospital mortality, providing support for the idea that early viral control prevents the progression of the disease. Viruses. 2023 Feb 5;15(2):446.

Severely ill and high-risk COVID-19 patients exhibit increased peripheral circulation of CD62L+ and perforin+ cells. Lesteberg KE, Araya P, Waugh KA, Chauhan L, Espinosa JM, Beckham JD. The study identified a potential biological marker for severe COVID-19. Front Immunol. 2023 Feb 2:1113932.

Blood-brain barrier penetration of non-replicating SARS-CoV-2 and S1 variants of concern induce neuroinflammation which is accentuated in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Erickson MA, Logsdon AF, Rhea EM, Hansen KM, Holden SJ, Banks WA, Smith JL et al. The SARS-CoV-2 virus can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause inflammation in the brain, a major mechanism behind central nervous system and cognitive impairments. The Delta and Omicron variants cross this barrier faster than other variants. Brain Behay Immun. 2023 Jan 19. Online ahead of print.

Anti-membrane antibodies persist at least one year and discriminate between past coronavirus disease 2019 infection and vaccination. Amjadi MF, Adyniec RR, Gupta S, Bashar SJ, Mergaert AM, Braun KM, Moreno GK et al. After COVID-19 infection, antibodies persist for at least one year and can be used to differentiate between people who have been infected, vaccinated, or neither. J Infect Dis. 2022 Nov 28;226(11):1897-1902.

SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG antibody and ACE2 receptor binding inhibition levels among breakthrough stage Veteran patients. Chensue SW, Siler AF, Kim PS, Dimcheff DE, Daghfal DJ, Prostko J, Frias E et al. Antibody levels declined significantly 150 days after initial two-dose COVID-19 vaccination, while vaccination after resolved infection and booster vaccination conferred longer immunity. Microbiol Spectr. 2022 Nov 21. Online ahead of print.

Regression of lung cancer in mice by intranasal administration of SARS-CoV-2 spike S1. Sheinin M, Jeong B, Paidi RK, Pahan K. In lab-cultured cells and mouse models, the spike protein from the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused lung cancer cell death, suggesting it may have potential for lung cancer treatment. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Nov 17;14(22):5648.

Heterogeneity of neutrophils and inflammatory responses in patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. Xu J, He B, Carver K, Vanheyningen D, Parkin B, Garmire LX, Olszewski MA, Deng JC. During severe infection, a loss of normal regulatory neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, occurs, along with the dropout of appropriate cellular interactions. Front Immunol. 2022 Nov 16;13:970287.

The association of baseline plasma SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen level and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. ACTIV-3/TICO Study Group, et al. Elevated plasma antigen is highly associated with both severity of pulmonary illness and clinically important patient outcomes. Findings suggest a potential role of ongoing viral replication in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Ann Intern Med. 2022 Oct;175(10):1401-1410.

Programmable antivirals targeting critical conserved viral RNA secondary structures from influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2. Hagey RJ, Elazar M, Pham EA, Tian S, Ben-Avi L, Bernardin-Souibgui C, Yee MF et al. “Programmable antivirals” have potential to stop transition of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Nat Med. 2022 Aug 18. Online ahead of print.

SARS-CoV-2 reinfection across a spectrum of immunological states. McKittrick JM, Burke TW, Petzold E, Sempowski GD, Denny TN, Polage CR, Tsalik EL, McClain MT. Repeat episodes of COVID-19 can occur in patients regardless of the presence of known risk factors or level of serological response to infection. Health Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 22;5(4):e554.

Potential similarities in sex difference in key genes and their expression network, EQTL and pathways between COVID-19 and chronic kidney disease based on mouse model. Yu Z, Zhan J, Dong W, Lu L, Jablonski MM, Aleya L, Chen J et al. Known and novel genes in chronic kidney disease may play significant roles in the sex differences in the chronic kidney disease and COVID-19 disease pathways. J Pers Med. 2022 Jul 21;12(7):1190.

Ultrafast-UV laser integrating cavity device for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. Ambardar S, Howell MC Jr, Mayilsamy K, McGill A, Green R, Mohapatra S, Voronine DV, Mohapatra SS. An ultraviolet laser device has potential for inactivating SARS-CoV-2 viruses in air and water purification systems. Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 13;12(1):11935.

Simulation of COVID-19 symptoms in a genetically engineered mouse model: Implications for the long haulers. Singh M, Pushpakumar S, Bard N, Zheng Y, Homme RP, Mokshagundam SPL, Tyagi SC. The engineered mouse appears to be a suitable model for studying COVID-19 and finding appropriate prevention and treatment methods. Mol Cell Biochem. 2022 Jun 22. Online ahead of print.

Multiomic analysis reveals cell-type-specific molecular determinants of COVID-19 severity. Zhang S, Cooper-Knock J, Weimer AK, Shi M, Zozhaya L, Unutmaz D, Harvey C et al. The study identified a possible genomic basis for COVID-19 severity. Cell Syst. 2022 Jun 3. Online ahead of print.

COVID-19 vaccine booster dose needed to achieve Omicron-specific neutralisation in nursing home residents. Canaday DH, Oyebanji OA, White E, Keresztesy D, Payne M, Wilk D, Carias L et al. Booster vaccination significantly increased Omicron-specific COVID-19 immune response in nursing home residents and health care workers. EBioMedicine. 2022 May 20;80:104066.

Inhibition of IRAK4 dysregulates SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced macrophage inflammatory and glycolytic reprogramming. Umar S, Palasiewicz K, Meyer A, Kumar P, Prabhakar BS, Volin MV, Rahat R et al. The study explores the molecular mechanism of how the SARS-CoV-2 virus affects the inflammatory response through the IRAK4 enzyme. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 May 19;79(6):301.

Interleukin-6 elevation is a key pathogenic factor underlying COVID-19-associated heart rate-corrected QT prolongation. Lazzerrini P, Accioli R, Acampa M, Zhang WH, Verrengia D, Cartocci A, Bacarelli MR et al. In severe COVID-19, systemic inflammatory activation can promote QT interval prolongation via IL-6 elevation, leading to ventricular electric remodeling. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 May 19;9:893681.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 severity and predicts clinical outcomes. Jacobs JL, Bain W, Naqvi A, Staines B, Castanha PMS, Yang H, Bolts VF et al. Levels of virus particles detected in the blood correlate to COVID-19 disease severity. Clin Infect Dis. 2022 May 3;74(9):1525-1533.

Prospective validation of a rapid host gene expression test to discriminate bacterial from viral respiratory infection. Ko ER, Henao R, Frankey K, Petzold EA, Isner PD, Haehne AK, Allen N et al. A host response bacterial/viral test accurately discriminated bacterial from viral infection among patients with acute respiratory illness with fever. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Apr 1;5(4):e227299.

T-cell expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and binding of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2. Welch JL, Xiang J, Chang Q, Houtman JCD, Stapleton JT. T-cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 demonstrate reduced proliferation, indicating that direct interaction of the virus with T-cells may alter T-cell growth. This may contribute to impaired T-cell function observed in patients with severe disease. J Infect Dis. 2022 Mar 2;225(5):810-819.

Effect of monoclonal antibody therapy on the endogenous SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. Kim PS, Dimcheff DE, Siler A, Schildhouse RJ, Chensue SW. Passive immunization therapy may cause immunologic interference. Clin Immunol. 2022 Feb 24;236:108959.

Genome-wide characterization of SARS-CoV-2 cytopathogenic proteins in the search of antiviral targets. Zhang J, Li Q, Cruz Cosme RS, Gerzanich V, Tang Q, Simard JM, Zhao RY. Genome analysis identified a protein that could be a target for new antiviral treatments for COVID-19. mBio. 2022 Feb 15;13(1). Online ahead of print.

Single-cell multi-omics reveals dyssynchrony of the innate and adaptive immune system in progressive COVID-19. Unterman A, Sumida TS, Nouri N, Yan X, Zhao AY, Gasque V, Schupp JC et al. In-depth immune profiling reveals dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune response in progressive COVID-19. Nat Commun. 2022 Jan 21;13(1):440.

Expression of ACE2 in human neurons supports the neuro-invasive potential of COVID-19 virus .Xu J, Lazartigues E. Human neuron cells express ACE2 enzymes, which could potentially allow SARS-CoV-2 to invade neurons and cause neurological symptoms. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2022 Jan;42(1):305-309.

Detection of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in plasma and saliva from vaccinated and infected individuals. Klingler J, Lambert GS, Itri V, Liu S, Bandres JC, Enyindah-Asonye G, Liu X et al. Although saliva levels were significantly lower, a strong correlation was observed between plasma and saliva antibody levels in vaccinated and convalescent COVID-19 patients. Front Immunol. 2021 Dec 20;12:759688.

BNT162b2 vaccine induces divergent B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2. Brewer RC, Ramadoss NS, Lahey LJ, Jahanbani S, Robinson WH, Lanz TV. Messenger RNA vaccines for COVID-19 produced strong immune responses, and this response was strongly boosted by the second does, which delivers potently neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and several of its variants. Nat Immunol. 2021 Nov 30. Online ahead of print.

Glycosylation and disulfide bonding of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Zhang S, Go EP, Ding H, Anang S, Kappes JC, Desaire H, Sodroski JG. The study examined the biology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein, which allows it to enter cell membranes. The findings could expedite the improvement of vaccines and therapies for COVID-19. J Virol. 2021 Nov 24. Online ahead of print.

Heterogeneous longitudinal antibody responses to Covid-19 mRNA vaccination. de la Monte SM, Long C, Szczepanski N, Griffin, Fitzgerald A, Chapin K. Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccines vary in magnitude, duration, and occurrence. This study raises concern about the lack of vaccine protection in as many as 8% of otherwise normal people. Clin Pathol. 2021 Oct 7;14:2632010X211049255.

Osteoclast-mediated bone loss observed in a COVID-19 mouse model. Awosanya OD, Dalloul CE, Blosser RJ, Dadwal UC, Carozza M, Boschen K, Klemsz MJ, Johnston NA, Bruzzaniti A, Robinson CM, Srour EF, Kacena MA. This study demonstrated significant bone loss within two weeks after COVID-19 infection in surviving asymptomatic and moderately affected mice. Bone. 2021 Oct 1. Online ahead of print.

COVID-19 generates hyaluronana fragments that directly induce endothelial barrier dysfunction. Queisser KA, Mellema RA, Middleton EA, Portier I, Manne BK, Denorme F, Beswick EJ et al. COVID-19 causes damage to the protective layer of lung cells, which could cause lung injury. JCI Insight. 2021 Sep 8;6(17):147472.

Tofacitinib therapy intercepts macrophage metabolic reprogramming instigated by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Palasiewicz K, Umar S, Romay B, Zomorrodi RK, Shaharara S. Tofacitinib suppresses inflammation and immunometabolism triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and may provide a promising strategy for COVID-19 patients. Eur J Immunol. 2021 Sep;51(9):2330-2340.

Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients associated with poor clinical outcome. Sulaiman I, Chung M, Angel L, Tsay JJ, Wu BG, Yeung ST, Krolikowski K et al. Secondary respiratory infections do not drive mortality in COVID-19. Nat Microbiol. 2021 Aug 31. Online ahead of print.

SARS-CoV-2 impairs dendritic cells and regulates DC-SIGN gene expression in tissues. Cai G, Du M Bosse Y, Albrecht H, Qin F, Luo X, Androulakis XM et al. The study provides insights into the profound modulation of dendritic cell function in severe COVID-19. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 26;22(17):9228.

Type I interferon autoantibodies are associated with systemic immune alterations in patients with COVID-19. van der Wijst MGP, Vazquez SE, Hartoularos GC, Bastard P, Grant T, Bueno R, Lee DS et al. A lack of gene expression for a specific type of antibody in patients with severe COVID-19 supports a unifying model of how COVID-19 progresses in the body. Sci Transl Med. 2021 Aug 24. Online ahead of print.

Longitudinal analysis of antibody decay in convalescent COVID-19 patients. Xia W , Li M, Wang Y, Kazis LE, Berlo K, Melikechi N, Chiklis GR. For the majority of study participants, naturally occurring COVID-19 antibodies were detected at effective levels for only four months after infection. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 18;11(1):16796.

Adult stem cell-derived complete lung organoid models emulate lung disease in COVID-19. Tindl C, Fuller M, Fonseca A, Taheri S, Ibeawuchi SR, Beutler N, Katkar GD et al. Findings validate a human lung model of COVID-19, which can be immediately utilized to investigate COVID-19 pathogenesis and vet new therapies and vaccines. Elife. 2021 Aug 13;10:e66417.

Vitamin D and lumisterol novel metabolites can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery enzymes. Qayyum S, Mohammad T, Slominski RM, Hassan MI, Tuckey RC, Raman C, Slominski AT. Active forms of vitamin D and lumisterol can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery enzymes, which indicates that they are candidates for antiviral drug research. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Aug 1;321(2):E246-E251.

Serum metabolic profile in patients with long-covid (PASC) syndrome: Clinical implications. Pasini E, Corsetti G, Romano C, Scarabelli TM, Chen-Scarabelli C, Saravolatz L, Dioguardi FS. The co-existence of patient symptoms along with blood markers of coagulation, protein disarrangement, and inflammation suggests ongoing alterations in the metabolism of patients with long COVID. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Jul 22;8:714426.

SARS-CoV-2 disrupts proximal elements in the JAK-STAT pathway. Chen DY, Khan N, Close BJ, Goel RK, Blum B, Tavares AH, Kenney D, et al. This laboratory study identifies a possible biological pathway for how the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects multiple different organ cell types. J Virol. 2021 Jul 14. Online ahead of print.

Specific COVID-19 symptoms correlate with high antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2. Amjadi MF, O’Connell SE, Armbrust T, Mergaert AM, Narpala SR, Halfmann PJ, Bashar SJ et al. COVID-19 symptoms, most consistently fever, body aches, and low appetite, correlate with higher SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. 2021 Jun 17;5(6):466-476.

SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 forms intracellular aggregates and inhibit IFNγ-induced antiviral gene expression in human lung epithelial cells. Geng H, Subramanian S, Wu L, Bu HF, Wang X, Du C, De Plaen IG, Tan XD. The protein ORF8SARS-CoV-2 appears to be involved in the process by which the lungs are damaged in COVID-19. Front Immunol. 2021 Jun 9;12:679482.

Structure-based phylogeny identifies avoralstat as a TMPRSS2 inhibitor that prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Sun YJ, Velez G, Parsons DE, Li K, Ortiz ME, Sharma S, McCray PB Jr, Bassuk AG, Mahajan VB. Using a mouse model, researchers identified a chemical compound that could be repurposed to help prevent COVID-19 infection. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2021 May 17;131(10):e147973.

Plant-derived exosomal microRNAs inhibit lung inflammation induced by exosomes SARS-CoV-2 Nsp12. Teng Y et al. Researchers identified a structure created by lung cells when exposed to the COVID-19 virus that potentially plays and role in lung inflammation. Mol Ther. 2021 May 10. Online ahead of print.

Hypoxia induces expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II in alveolar epithelial cells: Implications for the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in COVID-19. Sturrock A, Zimmerman E, Helms M, Liou TG, Pain R 3rd. Increases of the ACE2 protein in lung cells caused by hypoxia (lack of oxygen) may explain how acute respiratory distress syndrome develops in COVID-19, according to a mouse model. Physiological Reports. 2021 May;9(9):e14854.

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cell responses differ by sex in COVID-19. Yu C, Littleton S, Giroux NS, Mathew R, Ding S, Kalnitsky J, Yang Y, Petzold E, Chung HA, Rivera GO, Rotstein T, Xi R, Ko ER, Tsalik EL, Sempowski GD, Denny TN, Burke TW, McClain MT, Woods CW, Shen X, Saban DR. The findings uncover a female-specific protective immune cell profile, potentially shedding light on reduced COVID-19 susceptibility in females. Med (N Y). 2021 Apr 13. Online ahead of print.

Blockade of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion using COVID-19 convalescent plasma. Wang L, Zhao J, Nguyen LNT, Adkins JL, Schank M, Khanal S, Nguyen LN, Dang X, Cao D, Thakuri BK, Lu Z, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Wu XY, El Gazzar M, Ning S, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ. COVID-19 convalescent plasma may not only inhibit SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, but also neutralize the virus’s ability to cross cell membranes. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 10;11(1):5558.

Dysregulated transcriptional responses to SARS-CoV-2 in the periphery. McClain MT, et al. Blood tests revealed both diverse and conserved components of the immune response in COVID-19 and provide for potential biomarker-based approaches to diagnosis. Nature Commun. 2021 Feb 17;12(1):1079.

Quantifying absolute neutralization titers against SARS-CoV-2 by a standardized virus neutralization assay allows for cross-cohort comparisons of COVID-19 sera. Oguntuyo KY, et al. Researchers developed a test of the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and other treatments that avoids using the live virus. mBio. 2021 Feb 16;12(1):e02492-20.

Severe COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with increased plasma immunoglobulin G agonist autoantibodies targeting the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor. Zimering MB. A specific cell receptor is prevalent in acute, severe COVID-19 infection and may help explain the biological processes of more severe cases. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab J. 2021 Feb 2;5(1):1-9.

A drug repurposing screen identifies hepatitis C antivirals as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV2 main protease. Baker JD, Uhrich RL, Kraemer GC, Love JE, Kraemer BC. Hepatitis C drugs have potential to be repurposed as a treatment for COVID-19. PLoS One. 2021 Feb 1;16(2):e0245962.

Peptide suppresses inflammation to reduce fever and protect lungs and heart in mice: Implications for COVID-19 therapy. Paidi RK, Jana M, Mishra RK, Dutta D, Raha , Pahan K. Researchers engineered a peptide that inhibits the interaction between the spike proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the ACE2 enzyme. This could lead to medication that reduces fever and protects the lungs and heart during COVID-19 infection. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 11. Online ahead of print.

Spike glycoprotein and host cell determinants of SARS-CoV-2 entry and cytopathic effects. Nguyen HT, Zhang S, Wang Q, Anang S, Wang J, Ding H, Kappes JC, Sodroski J. Researchers identified key structural features of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that could be useful in vaccine and other treatment development. J Virol. 2020 Dec 22. Online ahead of print.

The S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood brain barrier in mice. Rhea EM ,Logsdon AF, Hansen KM, Williams LM, Reed MJ, Baumann KK. The SARS-CoV-2 virus was able to enter into the brain tissue, in a mouse model. Nat Neurosci. 2020 Dec 16. Online ahead of print.

Lower respiratory tract myeloid cells harbor SARS-CoV-2 and display an inflammatory. phenotype Bain WG, Peñaloza HF, Ladinsky MS, van der Geest R, Sullivan M, Ross M, Methe B, McVerry BJ, Morris A, Watson AM, Watkins SC, St Croix CM, Stolz DB, Bjorkman PJ, Lee JS. Lower respiratory tract cells can harbor the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and show signs of inflammation. Chest. 2020 Nov 17;S0012-3692(20)35157-6.

A high-throughput assay for circulating antibodies directed against the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Weiss S, Klinger J, Hioe C, Amanat F, Baine I, Arinsburg S, Kojic EM, Stoeyer J, Liu ST, Jurczyszak D, Bermudez-Gonzalez M, Simon V, Krammer F, Zolla-Pazner S. J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 13;222(10):1629-1634. Researchers developed a new SARS-CoV-2 test that is accurate and requires only 2.5 hours for results. J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 13;222(10):1629-1634.

Platelet gene expression and function in patients with COVID-19. Manne BK, Denorme F, Middleton EA, Portier I, Rowley JW, Stubben C, Petrey AC, Tolley ND, Guo L, Cody M, Weyrich AS, Yost CC, Rondina MT, Compbell RA. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 show altered platelet gene expression and functional responses. Blood. 2020 Sep 10;136(11):1317-1329.

Neutrophil extracellular traps contribute to immunothrombosis in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Middleton EA, et al. Researchers explored how substances called neutrophil extracellular traps are involved in the clinical presentation of COVID-19, and show that these substances may represent targets for new treatments. Blood. 2020 Sep 3;136(10):1169-1179.

Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and diverse RNA and DNA viruses on 3D printed surgical mask. materials Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and diverse RNA and DNA viruses on 3D printed surgical mask materials. Welch JL, Xiang J, Mackin SR, Perlman S, Thorne P, O’Shaughnessy P, Strzelecki B, Aubin P, Ortiz-Hernandez M, Stapleton JT. Several decontamination approaches effectively disinfect 3D-printed mask material. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 Aug 12:1-26.

Characterization of heparin and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein binding interactions. Kim SY, Jin W, Sood A, Montgomery DW, Grant OC, Fuster MM, Fu L, Dordick JS, Woods RJ, Zhang F, Linhardt RJ. This article provides the groundwork for biological evaluation and design of glycosaminoglycan-based COVID-19 therapeutics. Antiviral Res. 2020 Jul 9;181:104873.

Characterization of heparin and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein binding interactions. Kim SY, Jin W, Sood A, Montgomery DW, Grant OC, Fuster MM, Fu L, Dordick JS, Woods RJ, Zhang F, Linhardt RJ. This article provides the groundwork for biological evaluation and design of glycosaminoglycan-based COVID-19 therapeutics. Antiviral Res. 2020 Jul 9;181:104873.

Evaluation of an electrostatic spray disinfectant technology for rapid decontamination of portable equipment and large open areas in the era of SARS-CoV-2. Cadnum JL, Jencson AL, Livingston SH, Li DF, Redmond SN, Pearlmutter B, Wilson BM, Donskey CJ. Wheelchairs, portable equipment, and waiting room chairs are frequently contaminated with potential pathogens. Application of a dilute sodium hypochlorite disinfectant using an electrostatic sprayer provided rapid and effective decontamination and eliminated the benign virus bacteriophage MS2 from inoculate surfaces. Am J Infect Control. 2020 Jun 6. Online ahead of print.

Identification of potential natural inhibitors of SARS-CoV2 main protease by molecular docking and simulation studies. Gupta S, Singh AK, Kushwaha PP, Prajapati KS, Shuaib M, Senapti S, Kumar S. A protein was identified that may be an effective drug target for future COVID-19 treatments. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020 Jun 1:1-12. Online ahead of print.

Evaluation of ultraviolet-C light for rapid decontamination of airport security bins in the era of SARS-CoV-2. Cadnum JL, Li DF, Jones LD, Redmond SN, Pearlmutter B, Wilson BM, Donskey CJ. UV-C light administered in proximity to a plastic bin reduced contamination. Pathog Immun. 2020 May 22;5(1):133-142.

TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 promote SARS-CoV-2 infection of human small intestinal enterocytes. Zang R, Gomez Castro MF, McCune BT, Zeng Q, Rothlauf PW, Sonnek NM, Liu Z, Brulois KF, Wang X, Greenberg HB, Diamond MS, Ciorba MA, Whelan SPJ, Ding S. The intestine is a potential site of SARS-CoV-2 replication, which may contribute to local and systemic illness and overall disease progression. Sci Immunol. 2020 May 13;5(47):eabc3582.

Dysregulated transcriptional responses to SARS-CoV-2 in the periphery. McClain MT, et al. Blood tests revealed both diverse and conserved components of the immune response in COVID-19 and provide for potential biomarker-based approaches to diagnosis. Nature Commun. 2021 Feb 17;12(1):1079.



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