COVID-19 infections among healthcare personnel in the United States Veterans Health Administration, March – August, 2020. Oda G, Sharma A, Lucero-Obusan C, Schirmer P, Sohoni P, Holodniy M. Between March and August 2020, nearly 6,000 VA health care workers contracted COVID19. Of those, 18 died after infection. J Occup Environ Med. 2020 Dec 11. Online ahead of print.
Facial personal protective equipment: Materials, resterilization methods, and management of occupation-related dermatoses. Yu J, Goldminz A, Chisolm S, Jacob SE, Zippin JH, Wu PA, Hylwa S, Dunnick CA, Chen JK, Reeder M, Honari G, Atwater AR. There are increasing reports of occupational dermatoses associated with facial personal protective equipment. This review discusses the components of facial PPE, mask resterilization methods, and strategies for prevention and management of facial dermatoses. Dermatitis. 2020 Dec 1. Online ahead of print.
Association of PTSD with COVID-19 testing and infection in the Veterans Health Administration. Haderlein TP, Wong MS, Yuan A, Llorente MD, Washington DL. Veterans with PTSD were more likely to be tested for COVID-19 than those without PTSD. However, Veterans with PTSD were less likely to test positive. J Psychiatr Res. 2020 Nov 23. Online ahead of print.
Metformin is associated with decreased 30-day mortality among nursing home residents infected with SARS-CoV2. Lally M, Tsoukas P, Halladay C, O’Neill E, Gravenstein S, Rudolph JL. Nursing home residents taking metformin-containing diabetes drugs has a reduction in 30-day mortality after COVID-19 infection. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020 Oct 26;S1525-8610(20)30924-5.
Acute kidney injury in a national cohort of hospitalized US Veterans with COVID-19. Bowe B, Cai M, Xie Y, Gibson AK, Maddukuri G, Al-Aly Z. Acute kidney injury is common during hospitalization with COVID-19 and associated with higher risk of health care resource use and death. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 Nov 16. Online ahead of print.
Cycle threshold to test positivity in COVID-19 for return to work clearance in health care workers. Domeracki S, Clapp RN, Taylor K, Lu CM, Lampiris H, Blanc PD. Considering estimated viral load testing may help inform return-to-work planning and decision making beyond solely relying on positive/negative test results. J Occup Environ Med. 2020 Nov;62(11):889-891.
Emerging mechanisms of pulmonary vasoconstriction in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and potential therapeutic targets. Karmouty-Quintana H, Thandavarayan RA, Keller SP, Sahay S, Pandit LM, Akkanti B. In this review, the authors outline emerging mechanisms of pulmonary vascular dysfunction in COVID-19 and outline potential treatment options that have been clinically tested. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Oct 29;21(21):E8081.
Association of poor housing conditions with COVID-19 incidence and mortality across US counties. Ahmad K, Erqou S, Shah N, Nazir U, Morrison AR, Choudhary G, Wu WC. Counties with higher percentage of households with poor housing had higher incidence of, and mortality associated with, COVID-19. PLoS One. 2020 Nov 2;15(11):e0241327.
Virtual care expansion in the Veterans Health Administration during the COVID-19 pandemic: Clinical services and patient characteristics associated with utilization. Ferguson JM, Jacobs J, Yefimova M, Greene L, Heyworth L, Zulman DM. Veterans with high clinical or social need had higher likelihood of virtual service use early in the COVID-19 pandemic. However, older, homeless, and rural Veterans were less likely to have video visits, raising concerns for access barriers. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2020 Oct 30. Online ahead of print.
ACE2 mouse models: A toolbox for cardiovascular and pulmonary research. Jia H, Yue X, Lazertigues E. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with the genetic tools available for further understanding of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 biology and for the investigation of ACE2 in the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19. Nat Commun. 2020 Oct 14;11(1):5165.
Impact of exposure to patients with COVID-19 on residents and fellows: an international survey of 1420 trainees. Cravero AL, Kim NJ, Feld LD, Berry K, Rabiee A, Bazarbashi N, Bassin S, Lee TH, Moon AM, Qi X, Liang PS, Aby ES, Khan MQ, Young KJ, Patel A, Wijarnpreecha K, Kobeissy A, Hashim A, Houser A, Ioannou GN. Exposure to patients with COVID-19 is significantly associated with higher burnout rates in physician trainees. Postgrad Med J. 2020 Oct 21. Online ahead of print.
Geographic variation of racial disparities in health and COVID-19 mortality. Parcha V, Malla G, Suri SS, Kalra R, Heindl B, Berra L, Fouad MN, Arora G, Arora P. Racial disparities in COVID-19 are largely driven by higher cumulative incidence of infection in Black patients. There is a discordance between the geographic dispersion of COVID-19 mortality and the regional distribution of health factors. Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes. 2020 Oct 6. Online ahead of print.
Temperature screening for SARS-CoV-2 in nursing homes: Evidence from two national cohorts. McConeghy KW, White E, Panagiotou OA, Santostefano C, Halladay C, Feifer RA, Blackman C, Rudolph JL, Mor V, Gravenstein S. A definition of 38.0°C for fever in nursing home screening tools should be lowered to improve predictive accuracy for SARS-CoV-2 infection. J AM Geriatr Soc. 2020 Oct 9. Online ahead of print.
The ten reasons why corticosteroid therapy reduces mortality in sever COVID-19. Arabi YM, chrousos GP, Meduri GU. This article summarizes the current understanding of the effect of corticosteroid therapy in severe COVID-19, which appears to reduce mortality. Intensive Care Med. 2020 Oct 7;1-4.
Long-term hydroxychloroquine use in patients with rheumatic conditions and development of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A retrospective cohort study. Gentry CA, Humphrey MB, Thind SK, Hendrickson SC, Kurdgelashvili G, Williams RJ 2nd. Hydroxychloroquine was not associated with a preventive effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large group of patients with rheumatological conditions. Lancet Rheumatol. 202 0Sep 21. Online ahead of print.
Seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among VA healthcare system employees suggests higher risk of infection when exposed to SARS-CoV-2 outside of the work environment. Dimcheff DE, Schildhouse RJ, Hausman MS, Vincent BM, Markovitz E, Chensue SW, Deng J, McLeod M, Hagan D, Russel J, Bradley SF. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among VA employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19-positive persons outside of work were more likely to have virus antibodies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 23:1-25.
Patterns of COVID-19 testing and mortality by race and ethnicity among United States Veterans: A nationwide cohort study. Rentsch CT, Kidwai-Khan F, Tate JP, Park LS, King JT Jr, Skanderson M, Hauser RG, Schultze A, Jarvis CI, Holodniy M, Lo Re V 3rd, Akgün KM, Crothers K, Taddei TH, Freiberg MS, Justice AC. Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing excess burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live and receive care. PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 22;17(9):e1003379.
Utility of repeat nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing and refinement of diagnostic stewardship strategies at a tertiary care academic center in a low-prevalence area of the United States. Lepak AJ, Chen DJ, Buys A, Stevens L, Safdar N. Repeat inpatient testing after initial negative COVID-19 result with the RT-PCR test failed to demonstrate negative-to-positive conversion, suggesting that sensitivity of the test may be higher than previously believed. Open Forum Infect Dis. 202 0Aug 27;8(9):ofaa388.
Endocrine significance of SARS-CoV-2’s reliance on ACE2. Lazartigues E, Qadir MMF, Mauvais-Jarvis F. This review discusses the rapidly evolving knowledge of the potential role of the ACE2 enzyme and coronaviruses in the development of diabetes, hypogonadism, and pituitary and thyroid diseases. Endocrinology. 2020 Sep 1;161(9): bqaa108.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker use among outpatients diagnoses with COVID-19. Bae DJ, Tehrani DM, Rabadia SV, Frost M, Parikh RV, Calfon=Press M, Aksoy O, Umar S, Ardehali R, Rabbani A, Bokhoor P, Nsair A, Currier J, Tobis J, Fonarow GC, Dave R, Rafique AM. Among patients diagnosed with COVID-19, ACE inhibitor/ARB use for high blood pressure was not associated with increased risk of hospital admission. Am J Cardiol. 2020 Jul 12. Online ahead of print.
Income disparities in access to critical care services. Kanter GP, Segal AG, Groeneveld PW. A large gap exists in access to ICU beds based on income: 49% of the lowest-income communities had no ICU beds, whereas only 3% of the highest-income communities had no ICU beds. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020 Aug;39(8):1362-1367.
A case for targeting Th17 cells and IL-17A in SARS-CoV-2. Orlov M, Wander PL, Morrell ED, Mikacenic C, Wurfel MM. This review describes evidence linking risk factors for critical illness in COVID-19 with increased Th17 cell activation and IL-17 signaling that may lead to increased likelihood for lung injury and respiratory failure. J Immunol. 2020 Aug 15;205(4):892-898.
AGA Institute rapid review of the gastrointestinal and liver manifestations of COVID-19, meta-analysis of international data, and recommendations for the consultative management of patients with COVID-19. Sultan S, Altayar O, Siddique SM, Davitkov P, Feuerestein JD, Lim JK, Falck-Ytter Y, El-Serag HB; AGA Institute. Gastrointestinal symptoms are associated with COVID-19 in less than 10% of patients. Further studies are needed to standardize GI symptom questionnaires and liver function tests on admission for COVID-19. Gastroenterology. 2020 Jul;159(1):320-334.
Characteristics and quality of US nursing home reporting cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chatterjee P, Kelly S, Qi M, Warner RM. Rates of failure to meet or allegations of noncompliance with federal requirements were higher in nursing homes that reported COVID-19 cases. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jul 1;3(7):e2016930.
Decontamination methods for reuse of filtering facepiece respirators. Su-Velez BM, Maxim T, Long JL, St John MA, Holliday MA. UV light, steam, low-dry heat, and commercial sterilization methods with ethylene oxide or vaporized hydrogen peroxide appear to be viable options for successful decontamination of N95 masks. JAMA Otolaryngol Hed Neck Surg. 2020 Jul 2. Online ahead of print.
COVID-19, mast cells, cytokine storm, psychological stress, and neuroinflammation. Kempuraj D, Selvakumar GP, Ahmed ME, Raikwar SP, Thangavel R, Khan A, Zaheer SA, Iver SS, Burton C, James D, Zaheer A. COVID-19 can induce mast cell activation, psychological stress, cytokine storm, and neuroinflammation. Neuroscientist. 2020 Jul 10. Online ahead of print.
Investigation of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission from two patients to health care workers identifies close contact but not airborne transmission events. Bays DJ, Nguyen MH, Cohen SH, Waldman S, Martin CS, Thompson GR, Sandrock C, Tourtellotte J, Pugashetti JV, Phan C, Nguyen HH, Warner GY, Penn BH. At least in a health care setting, a majority of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to take place during close contact with infected patients through respiratory droplets, rather than by long-distance airborne transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 Jul 3:1-22.
Use of baricitinib in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. Titanji BK, Farley MM, Mehta A, Connor-Schuler R, Moanna A, Cribbs SK, O’Shea J, DeSilva K, Chan B, Edwards A, Gavegnano C, Schinazi RF, Marconi VC. In a small uncontrolled cohort of patients with moderate-severe COVID-19, treatment with baricitinib plus hydroxychloroquine was associated with recovery. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 29. Online ahead of print.
Review of viral testing (polymerase chain reaction) and antibody/serology testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 for the intensivist. Motley MP, Bennett-Guerrero, Fries BC, Spitzer ED. This review details the strengths and weaknesses of various testing methods for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Crit Care Explor. 2020 Jun 15;2(6):e0154.
Clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab: An individual patient data systematic review. Antwi-Amoabeng D, Kanji Z, Ford B, Beutler BD, Riddle MS, Siddiqui F. Following tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19 patients, interleukin-6 levels elevate and C-reactive protein levels dramatically decrease, suggestion an improvement in the hyperinflammatory state. J Med Virol. 2020 May 21. Online ahead of print.
Differences in race and other state-level characteristics and associations with mortality from COVID-19 infection. Sehra ST, Fundin S, Lavery C, Baker JF. States with a greater proportion of African American residents report a higher death rate from COVID-19 despite adjusting for case rates and state-level factors. J Med Virol. 2020 May 30. Online ahead of print.
Survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest in critically ill patients: Implication for Covid-19 outbreak? Girotra S, Tang Y, Chan PS, Nallamothu BK. In a cohort of critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation, survival outcomes following in-hospital resuscitation were not uniformly poor. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2020 Jul;13(7):e006837.
AGA Institute rapid review of the GI and liver manifestations of COVID-19, meta-analysis of international data, and recommendations for the consultative management of patients with COVID-19. Sultan S, Altayar O, Siddique SM, Davitkoy P, Feuerstein JD, Lim JK, Falck-Ytter Y, El-Serag HB. Gastrointestinal symptoms are associated with COVID-19 in less than 10% of patients. Further studies are needed with standardized GI symptoms questionnaires. Gastroenterology. 2020 Jul;159(1):320-334.
Systematic review and meta-analysis on the value of chest CT in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Sol Scientiae, Illustra Nos. Adams HJA, Kwee TC, Yakar D, Hope MD, Kwee RM. Chest CT scans have relatively high sensitivity to infections in patients with COVID-19 symptoms, but studies on the testing suffer from quality issues. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020 Jun 1;1-9. Online ahead of print.
Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the context of COVID-19. Shukla AM, Archibald LK, Shukla AW, Mehta HJ, Cherabuddi K. Pending the availability of confirmatory studies, the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 should be viewed as experimental at this stage, and it should adhere to local, regional, or national ethics and research guidelines. Drugs Context. 2020 Apr 28;9:2020-4-5.